Mixed cover crops capture carbon in soil, could help mitigate climate change

The researchers sampled soils under cover crops belonging to three plant functional types at plots that are part of a long-term cover-crops experiment at Penn State’s Russell E. Larson Agricultural Research Center in central Pennsylvania. Credit: Michael Houtz/Penn State When ...

New study reveals how E. coli cells evade antibacterial treatment

Raman spectroscopy identifies E. coli persisters at single-cell level. Credit: Liu Yang The formation of persisters is an important feature of bacteria like Escherichia coli (E. coli). These noxious cells, which are able to go dormant, are highly resistant ...

African sleeping sickness: How the pathogen colonizes tsetse flies

CARP3 is a flagellar tip regulator of social motility (SoMo) and is essential for colonization of tsetse fly salivary glands. a SoMo assays of procyclic T. brucei AnTat 1.1 wild type (WT), carp3 knock-out (KO, independent clones KO1, KO2) ...

Hemp byproducts are good alternative feed for lambs, study finds

Credit: Oregon State University An Oregon State University study found that spent hemp biomass—the main byproduct of the cannabinoid (CBD) extraction process of hemp—can be included in lamb diets without any major detrimental effects to the health of the ...

Moving mussels: New insights into shellfish farming

Credit: Pixabay/CC0 Public Domain Researchers have identified how mussel larvae move—giving mussel and other shellfish farmers important insights into where and how to grow them. The University of Stirling’s Institute of Aquaculture used genetic testing of mussels at sample ...

RNA-Editing Tool a Fast, Easy Test for COVID-19 and Other Diseases

Rice University postdoctoral researcher Jie Yang led an effort to adapt Cas13 genome editing tools to serve as a highly sensitive detector for the presence of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which causes COVID-19. Credit: Jeff Fitlow/Rice University Cas13 Engineered To ...

Warming oceans are changing Australian reef fish populations

Credit: Pixabay/CC0 Public Domain Shallow reefs and the creatures that inhabit them are changing due to rising ocean temperatures, but these impacts have been obscured by a lack of comprehensive local data. A team of researchers in Australia has ...

Scientists believe evolution could save coral reefs, if we let it

Credit: Unsplash/CC0 Public Domain Coral reefs can adapt to climate change if given the chance to evolve, according to a study led by Coral Reef Alliance, Rutgers University, the University of Washington and other institutions. The recent study, published ...

RNA-editing tool a fast, sensitive test for COVID-19

Using structure-guided Cas13, researchers at Rice University and the University of Connecticut modified a gene editing tool to serve as a highly sensitive diagnostic test for the presence of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. They used an off-the-shelf electrochemical sensor to ...

Computer simulations visualize how an essential stem cell protein opens wrapped DNA

Native genomic nucleosomes bound (dark blue) by Oct4 (red) and in free form (yellow). The surfaces and ribbons illustrate the DNA and the core structured regions of the histones respectively. Credit: Vlad Cojocaru A key protein for converting adult ...

Researchers map streamflow alterations to gauge human impact on ecosystems

Overview of the 7-step approach used to map hydrologic alteration and ecological consequences in stream reaches of the conterminous U.S. Credit: Scientific Data (2022). DOI: 10.1038/s41597-022-01566-1 Altering streamflow can endanger the ecosystems that rely on it, but researchers have ...

A possible way to confer TR4 fungus resistance to Cavendish bananas

(A-G): External and internal symptoms at six weeks after single inoculations with (A) Fusarium odoratissimum TR4, (B) F. oxysporum f. sp. melongenae, (C) F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae, (D) F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, (E) F. oxysporum f. sp. ...

Why do humans grow two sets of teeth? These marsupials are rewriting the story of dental evolution

Baby and adult teeth of the tammar wallaby. Scale bar equals 1 cm. Credit: Nasrullah et al. You only get 52 teeth in your lifetime: 20 baby teeth, followed by 32 adult teeth. It’s not like that for all ...

Analyzing the structural microdiversity of lake bacterioplankton genomes

Piecing the puzzle of microbe genomic sequences. Credit: KyotoU Global Comms/Yusuke Okazaki Part of humanity’s quest to better understand ourselves is to understand what constitutes the genetic makeup of the microorganisms in our environment. Through metagenomic analysis, which bypasses ...

Extra flavor and fraud prevention on the menu for Europe's beer and wine industries

The European drinks industry will stay ahead of competition by enhancing beer and wine flavours through research into new yeast strains. Credit: Timothy Dykes via Unsplash Europe’s valuable wine and beer industries are working to retain their competitive edge ...

Shaking the dinosaur family tree: How did 'bird-hipped' dinosaurs evolve?

Credit: University of Cambridge Researchers have conducted a new analysis of the origins of “bird-hipped” dinosaurs—the group which includes iconic species such as Triceratops—and found that they likely evolved from a group of animals known as silesaurs, which were ...

Food for our guts: Human microbes feed on plant sugars

Activity of PNGase B035DRAFT_03341 from B. massiliensis and PNGase BF0811 from B. fragilis against different substrates. (A) α1acid glycoprotein. (B) Fetuin. (C) Horseradish peroxidase. (D) RNaseB. (E) Soya protein. (F) Papaya protein. B035DRAFT_03341 (green), PNGaseF (black), and BF0811 (red). ...

Old genes keep sea anemones forever young

Cross-section through a tentacle of a transgenic sea anemone showing differentiation products of the SoxC cell population (magenta) and retractor muscles (yellow). (C: Andreas Denner). Credit: C: Andreas Denner The genetic fingerprint of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis shows ...

Distantly related viruses share self-assembly mechanism

The multiple protein subunits (green, purple and red) of the plant-infecting brome mosaic virus (left) have separate nucleation and growth phases similar to the MS2 bacteria-infecting virus (right). Credit: Brome mosaic virus capsid: Lucas, R.W., Larson, S.B., McPherson, A., ...

Little rodent, big appetite: Researchers identify the dietary impacts of invasive mice on the Farallon Islands

View of Southeast Farallon Island from West End. Credit: Point Blue Conservation Science On an island 30 miles off the coast of San Francisco, a hoard of invasive house mice are packing an ecological wallop far larger than what ...

The no-tech way to preserve California's state grass

Plant ecologists Loralee Larios, UC Riverside and Lauren Hallett, University of Oregon, in a Northern California field tracking the health of purple needlegrass. Credit: Loralee Larios/UCR Though it is disappearing, California’s official state grass has the ability to live ...

Female bighorn sheep with smaller horns are less reproductively fit, study finds

PhD candidate Samual Deakin records observations of bighorn sheep in the Ram Mountain study area. Credit: University of Alberta A new study by University of Alberta researchers shows a link between horn size and female reproductive fitness in bighorn ...

Gut microbiomes help bears with very different diets reach the same size

Alaskan brown bears (Ursus arctos) in a National Park and Preserve in Alaska. A recent study of the gut microbiome of Alaskan brown bears shows that the microbial life in bears’ guts allows them to achieve comparable size and ...

Whale strandings: Five questions answered

Graphic looking at how pilot whales use echolocation to navigate underwater, and listing various theories about what could go wrong to lead to strandings. The death of about 200 pilot whales at a Tasmanian beach has renewed questions about ...

Around 200 stranded whales die in pounding surf in Australia

In this image made from a video, a rescuer pours water on one of stranded whales on Ocean Beach, near Strahan, Australia Wednesday, Sept. 21, 2022. More than 200 whales have been stranded on Tasmania’s west coast, just days ...

Teams of sperm swim more smoothly against the current

Coexistence of individually swimming and clustered sperm. Clustered sperm are labeled with yellow ovals. Scale bar: 50 μm. Credit: S Phuyal, SS Suarez, C-K Tung It turns out sperm go against the flow better when they swim together. Despite ...

New method allows scientists to determine all the molecules present in the lysosomes of mice

A cartoon representation of the new method, which allows scientists to isolate the lysosomes (left) of any cell in a mouse to analyze and identify using mass spectrometry (right) all the molecules inside them. Credit: Cindy Lin Small but ...

Spain grants personhood status to threatened lagoon

Municipal workers clean the shores of the Mar Menor lagoon in Spain, which was granted personhood status to give its threatened ecosystem better protection. Spain granted personhood status Wednesday to a large saltwater lagoon to give its threatened ecosystem ...

Cleaner water linked with smaller cockles that die younger

The Burry Inlet and Loughor estuary, near Swansea, is a major habitat for the popular and widespread common cockle (Cerastoderma edule). Credit: Dr Ruth Callaway, Swansea University Cockles have been harvested along the south Wales coast for centuries. The ...

Monarch butterflies tagged with stickers in Chicago garden as they migrate south

Credit: CC0 Public Domain Near the driving range in Chicago’s Lakeview area, a faint but sweet smell floats in the air. One can follow it to a collection of beds where flowers sprout, surrounding a community garden in which ...

Trees can't outrun climate change. Should humans give them a lift?

Credit: Pixabay/CC0 Public Domain One tree at a time, David Saville has made it his life’s work to bring back West Virginia’s red spruce forests—and maybe help preserve the species hundreds of miles farther north while he’s at it. ...

Scientists engineer mosquitoes that can't spread malaria

Professor George Christophides holds a cage of mosquitoes. Credit: Imperial College London Scientists have engineered mosquitoes that slow the growth of malaria-causing parasites in their gut, preventing transmission of the disease to humans. The genetic modification causes mosquitoes to ...

No evidence that dehorning black rhinos negatively impacts the species' reproduction or survival, study finds

Credit: Unsplash/CC0 Public Domain There are no statistically significant differences in key factors of population growth—breeding, birth, survival, life span and death—between dehorned or horned black rhinos new research, conducted by the University of Bristol Vet School, Namibian Ministry ...

Predicting migration pathways of mule deer without GPS collars

Researchers used GPS collar data from a herd travelling across the Red Desert to Hoback Corridor, western Wyoming, to create a model that predicts where mule deer migrate, without the need for collaring new animals. Credit: Tanner Warder, Wyoming Cooperative ...

As chinook salmon get thinner and fewer, southern resident killer whales struggle to find enough food

Credit: Unsplash/CC0 Public Domain As marine species continue to decline worldwide, the southern resident killer whale population—which now stands at 75 individuals—along the west coast of North America, has baffled scientists who are trying to understand why this population ...

Scientists studying tree rings see climate change clues

Core samples may hold clues to a forest’s response to climate change. Credit: Stephanie Mitchell/Harvard Staff Photographer Sometimes getting to where you want to go is a matter of finding the right guide. Four teams of researchers, led by ...

Hibernating bears' ability to regulate insulin narrowed down to eight proteins

A grizzly bear enjoying the outdoors at the WSU Bear Center. Credit: Bob Hubner, Washington State University Feeding honey to hibernating bears helped Washington State University researchers find the potential genetic keys to the bears’ insulin control, an advance ...

New clue found in 'alien goldfish' suggests it may have been a mollusk

Typhloesus wellsi: anatomical schematic diagrams and artistic reconstruction. (a) Interpretative reconstruction of the radula fully outstretched as seen from above, anterior to the top, showing two main rows of lateral teeth (red triangles) decreasing in size towards the rear; ...

Naming unnamed species of bacteria in the age of big data

Schematic workflow for creation and assignment of arbitrary Latinate names. Strings built from Latin letters were selected and curated to exclude unwanted components and meaningful words. These were combined with Latin suffixes or words to create names, which were ...

Plant resources threatened by pests and diseases

Credit: Pixabay/CC0 Public Domain Imagine a world where farms bear no crops, forests have no trees and nature exists without plants. Not only will our world look incredibly different, but humanity would likely cease to exist altogether. Plants provide ...

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