Designer Neurons Offer New Hope for Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease

Summary: Researchers have designed a new method of converting non-neural cells into functioning neurons that are able to form synapses, dispense dopamine, and restore the function of neurons undermined by Parkinson’s associated destruction of dopaminergic cells. Source: Arizona State University ...

Key Protein Identified for Brain Stem Cell Longevity

Summary: INSR, a protein essential for insulin activity, plays a critical role in stem cell longevity. Additionally, inactivating INSR in glioblastoma brain cancer stem cells inhibits the growth of primitive tumor-forming cells. Source: Rutgers A receptor that was first identified ...

Frozen Testicular Tissue Can Be Reimplanted After 20 Years and Go On To Make Viable Sperm

Cross section of infertile mouse testis showing previously frozen transplanted rat germ cells and sperm. Credit: Eoin Whelan, Whelan et al., 2022, PLOS Biology, CC-BY 4.0 Research in mice holds implications for childhood cancer survivors. Male testis tissue that ...

Plug-and-Play Human Organ-on-a-Chip Can Be Customized to the Patient

The new multi-organ chip has the size of a glass microscope slide and allows the culture of up to four human engineered tissues, whose location and number can be tailored to the question being asked. These tissues are connected ...

Sleep Deprivation Impairs Stem Cells in the Cornea – Possibly Leading to Vision Impairment

After episodes of sleep deprivation, eye problems such as dryness and itching are common. Long-term sleep deprivation can increased the risk for eye disease. Sleep deprivation, which means getting too little high-quality sleep, is a serious health problem. More than ...

Gene Therapy Reverses Effects of Autism-Linked Mutation in Human Brain Organoids

Microscopy images reveal significant differences in size and structure between brain organoids derived from a patient with Pitt-Hopkins Syndrome (right) and from a control (left). Credit: UC San Diego Health Sciences University of California San Diego (UCSD) study uses ...

New Tool to Create Hearing Cells Lost in Aging

Summary: Researchers have identified a master gene that programs ear hair cells into either inner or outer cells. The discovery could lead to new treatments to restore hearing loss associated with aging, noise exposure, or as an adverse reaction to ...

Biochemists Identify How Genome Organization Influences Cell Fate

Cell nucleus illustration. University of California Riverside-led study identifies how blood stem cells maintain their fate. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that specify and maintain the identities of the human body’s more than 200 cell types is perhaps one of the ...

Unraveling Stem Cells’ Secrets: Immortality of Germline Cells and the Function of “Junk DNA”

MIT biology professor Yukiko Yamashita has spent much of her career exploring how asymmetrical cell divisions occur. This type of cell division allows cells to differentiate into different types of tissue, and also helps germline cells such as eggs ...

Scientists Create First Comprehensive Map of Human Blood Stem Cell Development

Human blood stem cells emerging from specialized endothelial cells in the wall of an embryonic aorta. UCLA scientists’ confirmation of this process clarifies a longstanding controversy about the stem cells’ cellular origin. Credit: Hanna Mikkola Lab/UCLA, Katja Schenke-Layland Lab/University ...

What Makes Brain Cells Develop in a Specific Order?

Summary: Study identified a complete series of ten factors that regulate the development of neurons in a fly’s visual system, shedding light on the order in which these neurons develop. Source: NYU Researchers have identified the complete series of 10 ...

“Time Jump” by 30 Years: Old Skins Cells Reprogrammed To Regain Youthful Function

Findings could lead to targeted approach for treating aging. Research from the Babraham Institute has developed a method to ‘time jump’ human skin cells by 30 years, turning back the aging clock for cells without losing their specialized function. ...

Newborn Cells in the Epileptic Brain Provide a Potential Target for Anti-Seizure Medications

Altered cells create an electrical “fire” in patients with epilepsy. Credit: BioRender illustration by Aswathy Ammothumkandy/Bonaguidi Lab/USC Stem Cell Over the years, everyone loses a few brain cells. A study led by scientists from USC Stem Cell and the ...

Epigenetics Research Uncovers Secrets That Allow Researchers To Revamp Stem Cell Reprogramming

Induced pluripotent stem cell illustration. Researchers have identified factors required to generate naïve stem cells by reprogramming. Researchers from the Babraham Institute’s Epigenetics research program have been able to learn more about naïve stem cell reprogramming following a genome ...

Sonic Advance: How High-Frequency Sound Waves Could Help Regrow Bones

Magnified image showing adult stem cells in the process of turning into bone cells after treatment with high-frequency sound waves. Green coloring shows the presence of collagen, which the cells produce as they become bone cells. Magnification: 60X. Credit: ...

Cough Suppressant Knocks Some Hearts Back Into Rhythm

Summary: Researchers report some over-the-counter cough suppressants can help correct heart rhythm problems in patients with QT syndrome. Source: Columbia University An over-the-counter cough suppressant can knock some heart cells back into rhythm, a finding that may lead to a ...

DNA Replication Speed Limit Could Be a Breakthrough for Stem Cell Therapy

DNA replication in mouse embryonic stem cells. Red: newly synthesized DNA. Credit: Helmholtz Zentrum München / Tsunetoshi Nakatani Adult cells in our body can only give rise to the same cell type. For example, a skin cell cannot give ...

Restoring brain function in mice with symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease

Summary: Senolytic drugs administered to mice reduced senescent cells around amyloid plaques by more than 90% and decreased neuroinflammation by 50%. Mice treated with the drug combination also showed improvements in spatial memory, compared to other Alzheimer’s model mice who ...

Pigment-producing stem cells can regenerate myelin sheath: Mouse study

Summary: Skin-related stem cells may be key to helping restore the myelin sheath in patients with multiple sclerosis. Using mouse models, researchers discovered melanocyte stem cells can, under the right conditions, function as cells that create myelin. Source: University of ...

Stem Cells Can Help Repair Spinal Cord After Injury

Summary: Research shows it is possible to stimulate stem cells in the spinal cord to produce large amounts of new oligodendrocytes. Source: Karolinska Institute Spinal cord injury often leads to permanent functional impairment. In a new study published in the ...

New injection technique may boost spinal cord injury repair efforts

Summary: Researchers have developed a new method for delivering neural precursor cells into rat models of spinal cord injury. The method is safe, effective, and reduces the likelihood of further spinal trauma while delivering larger doses of reparative stem cells. ...

First treatment for pain using human stem cells a success

Summary: Transplanting GABAergic cells derived from human-induced pluripotent stem cells into mice resulted in safe, lasting, and effective relief from extreme neuropathic pain. Researchers hope to begin human testing within five years. Source: University of Sydney Researchers at the University ...

Adding MS drug to targeted cancer therapy may improve glioblastoma outcomes

Summary: Teriflunomide, a drug commonly used to treat multiple sclerosis, shows promise for the treatment of glioblastoma when coupled with targeted cancer therapies. Source: UCSD Glioblastoma is an aggressive form of brain cancer that infiltrates surrounding brain tissue, making it ...

Stem Cells Can Repair Parkinson’s-Damaged Circuits in Mouse Brains

Summary: Stem cells derived neurons integrate well into the correct regions of the brain, connecting with native neurons and restoring motor function in mouse models of Parkinson’s disease. Source: University of Wisconsin Madison The mature brain is infamously bad at ...

Miniature Brain Models Developed to Study the Causes of Alzheimer’s and Test Drugs in Development

Summary: Researchers have developed a new brain organoid model to study the mechanistic causes of Alzheimer’s disease and test dementia drugs currently in development. Source: City of Hope Researchers led by City of Hope, a world-renowned research and treatment center ...

Fighting Brain Cancer at Its Root

Summary: Researchers have identified specific proteins that drive the development of cancer stem cells. They report targeting and suppressing galectin1, in addition to radiation therapy, could be an effective treatment for glioblastoma brain cancer. Source: McGill University McGill University researchers ...

Early Signs of Frontotemporal Dementia Found in Personalized Cerebral Organoids

Summary: Researchers recreated the damage seen in frontotemporal dementia in brain organoid models. The study reveals an experimental drug designed to treat Crohn’s disease may help prevent neuron death associated with FTD. Source: Mount Sinai Hospital Frontotemporal dementias are a ...

Scientists identify gene as master regulator in schizophrenia

Summary: TCF4 may serve as a master regulator of a gene network dysregulated in schizophrenia at the early stages of neurodevelopment. Source: CHOP Using computational tools to investigate gene transcription networks in large collections of brain tissues, a scientific team ...

Signal blocks stem cell division in the geriatric brain

Summary: A gene regulated called Id4 appears to be a key component in controlling stem cell proliferation. Source: University of Basel Scientists from Basel have investigated the activity of stem cells in the brain of mice and discovered a key ...

Human developmental clock mimicked in a dish

Summary: The human development ‘clock in a dish’ opens up new avenues for research and provides a way to replicate developmental disorders. Source: Morgridge Institute for Research In early mammalian development, timing is everything. For healthy development to occur — ...

To become, or not to become… a neuron

Summary: Bcl6 acts as a driver of neurogenic transition by directly silencing a selection of genes that belong to multiple extrinsic pathways promoting self-renewal. Bcl6 is only expressed in specific subsets of neurons and progenitor cells during brain development. Source: ...

Rejuvenating the brain: More stem cells improve learning and memory of old mice

Summary: Critical aspects of hippocampal function can be reversed in old age, or compensated for throughout life, with the help of neural stem cells. Source: TU Dresden We all will experience it at some point, unfortunately: The older we get ...

A new role for neurogenesis

Summary: Dentate gyrus neurogenesis acts to replace lost neurons and restore function following massive neuron loss. Source: SfN The ability to create new neurons may exist as built-in protection for sensitive brain areas, according to research in mice recently published ...

Stem cells exert tight control over the timing of brain development

Summary: Neural stem cells affect the trajectory and timing of division in brain development more than previously believed. The findings provide insight into the mechanisms controlling early brain development and shed light on the evolution of the brain. Source: RIKEN ...

Turning Off ‘Junk DNA’ May Free Stem Cells to Become Neurons

Summary: Deactivation of the HERV-K gene may free stem cells to become neurons. Source: NIH/NINDS For every cell in the body there comes a time when it must decide what it wants to do for the rest of its ...

The Real Reason Behind Goosebumps

Summary: Cell types responsible for causing goosebumps are also important for regulating the stem cells that regenerate hair follicles and hair. Source: Harvard If you’ve ever wondered why we get goosebumps, you’re in good company — so did Charles ...

New method provides unique insight into the development of the human brain

Summary: Researchers have developed a new model of early embryonic brain development. The model, called MiSTR, allows researchers to create tissue that contains different brain regions and place them next to each other. The model produces results similar to embryonic ...

Microbiota Linked to Dynamics of the Human Immune System

Summary: Study reveals the gut microbiome directly influences the makeup of the human immune system. Researchers found the concentration of different types of immune cells in the blood change in the presence of different bacterial strains in the gut. Source: ...

Reactivating Aging Stem Cells in the Brain

Summary: Increasing lamin B1 levels in aging mice resulted in neural stem cell division and an increase in the number of new neurons. Source: University of Zurich The stem cells in our brain generate new neurons throughout life, for example ...

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