Streamlining Stem Cells to Treat Macular Degeneration

Summary: A new protocol for differentiating human embryonic stem cells to RPE cells could be a safe and effective approach for treating age-related macular degeneration. Source: EPFL As we age, so do our eyes; most commonly, this involves changes to ...

New Factors Behind Better Vision

Summary: Researchers are able to predict how well a person can see based on the unique structure of their primary visual cortex. Source: NYU The size of our primary visual cortex and the amount of brain tissue we have dedicated ...

An Intriguing Connection Between Diet, Eye Health, and Lifespan

Summary: A new study of drosophila reveals a link between circadian rhythm, diet, lifespan, and eye health. Unexpectedly, researchers found processes in the fly eye that appear to drive the aging process. Source: Buck Institute Researchers from the Buck Institute ...

Researchers Make a Novel Discovery in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

Summary: Treatment with Humanin G reduced protein levels of inflammation markers that become elevated in age-related macular degeneration. Source: Impact Journals Inflammatory processes drive the progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) disease—a leading cause of vision loss in the United States. In ...

Study Confirms Benefit of Supplements for Slowing Age-Related Macular Degeneration

Summary: The AREDS2 dietary supplement that substitutes antioxidants lutein and zeaxanthin for beta-carotene reduces the risk of age-related macular degeneration progression, a new study reveals. Source: NIH The Age-Related Eye Disease Studies (AREDS and AREDS2) established that dietary supplements can slow progression ...

This Illusion, New to Science, Is Strong Enough to Trick Our Reflexes

Summary: The highly dynamic, new “expanding hole” optical illusion can be perceived by 86% of people. The illusion is so good at deceiving the brain, it causes pupillary dilation as though we are walking into a darkened room. Source: Frontiers ...

Investigating Links Between Facial Recognition and Alzheimer’s Disease

Summary: Study evaluates whether problems in facial processing and recognition in Alzheimer’s disease are a result of memory impairment or visual processing deficits. Source: KTU In recent years Alzheimer’s disease has been on the rise throughout the world and is ...

Changes in Brain’s Visual Areas in Infancy May Precede Autism Diagnosis

Summary: Children diagnosed with ASD at 24 months had differences in visual processing areas of the brain which were apparent at six months of age, a new study reports. Source: NIH Infants who were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) ...

Could Ultrasound Help the Blind See?

Summary: Focused ultrasound technology that stimulates the retina may help those with blindness to regain their vision. Source: USC The number of Americans with visual impairment or blindness is expected to jump to more than 8 million by the year ...

Retinal OFF Ganglion Cells Allow Detection of Quantal Shadows at Starlight

Summary: A small group of retinal cells, known as OFF ganglion cells, can detect small dips in light levels and appear to be responsible for shadow detection. Source: Aalto University Mice use a specific neural pathway to detect shadows, and ...

Spying on Thousands of Neurons in the Brain’s Vision Center Simultaneously

Summary: A novel, custom-built microscope allowed researchers to track the activity of a single neuron across the entire visual cortex. Source: HHMI Using a custom-built microscope to peer into the mouse brain, scientists have tracked the activity of single neurons ...

When Eyes Meet, Neurons Start to Fire

Summary: A specific set of socially tuned neurons fire across multiple regions across the prefrontal cortex and the amygdala at different times during mutual eye contact. The brain regions are recruited to compute selective aspects of interactive social gaze, suggesting ...

Poor Eyesight Unfairly Mistaken for Brain Decline

Summary: Cognitive tests that rely on vision-dependent tasks may skew results for up to 25% of adults over 50 with undiagnosed visual problems such as AMD and cataracts. This may lead to a misdiagnosis of mild cognitive impairment in older ...

Newly Discovered Neural Network Gets Visual and Motor Circuits in Sync

Summary: Researchers have identified a neural network that connects the legs to the visual system in order to shape walking. Source: Champlimaud Center for the Unknown A fruit fly walks on a small styrofoam ball fashioned into a floating 3D ...

New Eye Drops Can Help Aging People See Better

Summary: By the time most of us hit our 40s, our close-up vision starts to decline and we develop presbyopia. A new eye drop called Vuity claims to alleviate the symptoms of presbyopia, allowing people to gain clearer vision without ...

Fecal Transplants Reverse Hallmarks of Aging

Summary: Transplanting fecal microbiota from young mice to older mice reversed hallmark signs of aging in the gut, brains, and eyes. Transplanting the fecal microbiota from old to young mice had the reverse effect, inducing inflammation in the brain and ...

Infants Preferentially Perceive Faces in the Upper Visual Field

Summary: The upper visual field bias for faces emerges at around 7 months of age. Babies over 7 months developed a preference for memorizing the upper portions of a face. Source: Chuo University It has previously been reported that the ...

Blind People Remember Language Better Than Sighted People Do

Summary: A new study reveals blind people remember speech and language better than sighted people. Researchers say blind people use language as a mental tool to remember information. Source: Johns Hopkins University Blind people can remember speech better than sighted ...

How Ritalin Sharpens Attention

Summary: Study sheds new light on the neurobiological mechanisms that occur, allowing the ADHD drug Ritalin to improve attention and report the drug could have benefits for a range of cognitive changes associated with aging. Source: University of Pittsburgh Even ...

How Do Our Eyes Stay Focused on What We Reach For?

Summary: When reaching for a target object, we anchor our gaze to the target of the reach moment, thereby looking at the target for longer periods. This helps make our reach more accurate. Source: NYU Keeping our eyes focused on ...

Windows to the Soul: Pupils Reveal ‘Aphantasia’ – The Absence of Visual Imagination

Summary: People who experience visual imagination have pupillary responses that optimize the amount of light hitting the retina and change in response to imagined items. This pupillary response does not occur in those with aphantasia. Source: University of New South ...

People With Vision Impairments up to Four Times More Likely to Suffer Mental Health Problems

Summary: People who suffer from visual impairments or blindness by age 50 are four times more likely to report mental health problems, including anxiety and depression than those with better eyesight. Source: Sightsavers Research by international development organization Sightsavers, University ...

The Format of Working Memory

Summary: Researchers have identified how working memory is formatted, revealing visual memory can be flexible. Source: NYU A team of scientists has discovered how working memory is “formatted”—a finding that enhances our understanding of how visual memories are stored. “For ...

How the Action of the Eye Triggers Brain Waves to Help Remember Socially Important Information

Summary: A new study uncovers how the amygdala reacts and triggers memory-making activity when the eyes come to rest on a face versus another object or image. Source: Cedars Sinai Medical Center In a study led by Cedars-Sinai, researchers have ...

Antabuse May Help Revive Vision in People With Progressive Blinding Disorders

Summary: Antabuse, a drug commonly prescribed to treat alcohol use disorder, may help to restore eyesight in people with genetic retinitis pigmentosa and other disorders associated with retinal degeneration. Source: UC Berkeley Researchers at the University of California, Berkeley, have ...

Circadian Clock May Protect Aging Eyes

Summary: If the circadian clock is disrupted, we might be at greater risk of retinal degeneration as we age. Source: Purdue University While bright light helps us see better, our eyes need darkness for better vision. Light breaks down the ...

New Window System Allows for Long-Term Studies of Brain Activity

Summary: Researchers have developed a new “brain window” that allows for longer-term studies to map the visual areas of the brain. Source: Georgia Tech Bilal Haider is studying how multiple areas of the brain work together for visual perception. This ...

Memory May Alter How We Perceive the Visual and Auditory Information We Encounter

Summary: New research focuses on how memory can impact the perception of auditory and visual information. Source: Harvard Aleena Garner still remembers the moment she decided to pursue neurobiology. She was in an undergraduate chemistry class when realization struck: the ...

Is Seeing Believing? How Neural Oscillations Influence Our Conscious Experience

Summary: The perceptual accuracy of visual information and its subjective interpretation use separate neural mechanisms that can be manipulated independently of each other. Source: University of Bologna A research group from the University of Bologna discovered the first causal evidence ...

Why visual stimulation may work in fight against Alzheimer’s: Mouse study

Summary: Inducing gamma oscillations with visual stimulation via a process known as gamma entrainment using sensory stimuli, or GENUS, was shown to reduce amyloid plaques and phosphorylated tau in mouse models of dementia. Providing GENUS daily during the early stages ...

Numbing a body part can boost sensory powers elsewhere – here’s what that tells us about the brain

Summary: Sensory deprivation can improve perceptual abilities, both directly and indirectly. Source: The Conversation When you wake up in the middle of the night in total darkness, it can feel as if you have auditory superpowers. Suddenly, you can hear ...

A Link to Autism Helped Me Find the Upside of the Negative Side of Synesthesia

Summary: D’Arcy Carter provides insight into her experiences with synesthesia. Source: Neuroscience News. One of my first experiences with synesthesia happened during a time when I had no idea what it was called. I was in 8th-grade science class having ...

Hit it where it hurts: Scientists reveal how mirrors cure phantom pain

Summary: Visual responsiveness in the somatosensory cortex diminishes significantly following mirror therapy for phantom limb pain. Before therapy, researchers discovered a strong, unexpected activation in the sensorimotor foot region of amputees to visually presented images of the foot. This response ...

Eye Exam Could Lead to Early Parkinson’s Disease Diagnosis

Summary: Artificial intelligence technology can identify early signatures of Parkinson’s disease based on images of the retina vasculature taken from a simple eye test. Source: RSNA A simple eye exam combined with powerful artificial intelligence (AI) machine learning technology could ...

Alzheimer’s Disease Protein Linked to Common Sight Loss

Summary: Exposing retinal pigment epithelium cells in mouse models to amyloid-beta resulted in retinal pathologies similar to those seen in human age-related macular degeneration. Source: University of Southampton Newly published research has revealed a close link between proteins associated with ...

Eyes Provide Peek at Alzheimer’s Disease Risk

Summary: The presence of amyloid-beta deposits in the retina correlated with cerebral amyloid levels in those with Alzheimer’s disease. The findings may lead to methods for the earlier detection of Alzheimer’s. Source: UCSD Amyloid plaques are protein deposits that collect ...

Artificial neural networks can be used to drive brain activity

Summary: Current deep learning models are able to create images strongly enough to activate specific neurons in the visual cortex. However, researchers say more accurate artificial neural network models should be developed to help produce more accurate control. Source: MIT ...

New AI Sees Like a Human, Filling in the Blanks

Summary: A new deep learning system takes glimpses of its surroundings, representing less than 20% of a 360-degree view and infers the rest of the environment. Source: UT Austin Computer scientists at The University of Texas at Austin have taught ...

Artificial intelligence reveals what neurons in the visual cortex prefer to look at

Summary: A new deep learning algorithm can reliably determine what visual stimuli neurons in the visual cortex respond best to. Source: Harvard Why do our eyes tend to be drawn more to some shapes, colors, and silhouettes than others? For ...

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